Forest CDM in indonesia


Indonesia’s biodiversity richness is made possible by several factors: it is located between two continents (Asia and Australia) and two oceans (Pacific and Indian) and it has a unique geographical feature (State Ministry of Environment, 1997). Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,500 islands extending 5,000 km along the equator and spanning two major biogeographical realms (Indomalaya and Australasia) with the Wallace Line in between, as well as several distinct biogeographical provinces. As a result, Indonesia is not only a megabiodiversity country but also has a high level of endemism.

Many of Indonesia's forests include in Tropical Rain Forest is a complex community whose framework is provided by trees of many sizes.Forest canopy is used as a general one to describe the total plant community above the ground. Within the canopy the microclimate differs from that. outside; there is less light, humidity is higher, and temperature is lower. Many of the smaller trees grow in the shade of the larger ones in the microclimate that these produce. Upon the framework of the tree and within the microclimate of the canopy grow a range of other kinds of plants: climbers, epiphytes, strangling, plants parasites, and saprophytes. The trees and most of the other plants are rooted in the soil and draw nutrients and water from it. Their fallen leaves, twigs, branches, and other parts provide; food for a host of invertebrate animals, amongst which termites are often important, and for fungi and bacteria. Nutrients are returned to the soil via decay of fallen parts and by leaching from the leaves by rain-water. It is a feature of tropical rain forest that most of the total nutrient store is in the vegetation; relatively little is held in the soil.

Indonesia’s forests are an extraordinary natural phenomenon, of immense value and beauty. Over ten per cent of the planet’s diversity of plants and animals are found only in Indonesia, including orangutan, elephants, tigers, rhinoceros, a thousand species of birds, and thousands of plant species. The archipelago is also home to hundreds of indigenous groups who have lived from and managed Indonesia’s forests for thousands of years. The forests provide food, medicines, building materials and clothing fibers, not only for indigenous communities, but also for world markets. Indonesia also possesses more endangered species than any other country in the world largely because of deforestation.

Causes of climate change
Impact Global Warming
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Agreement on global warming
Analyzing global warming
Kyoto Protocol
Greenhouse effect
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Why climates vary
Ocean problems
Southern Ocean
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Changes in the atmosphere
Increasing Temperatures
Can Earth Explode ?
NASA Study
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Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries


The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia.

by : Dr. Gun Mardiatmoko ( (HP:+6281904227676)



I. General Information

A. Data of developer

B. Status of negotiation and description of project proponents (level of joint agreement between Indonesia and partners with all of preparation which have been done)

C. Type of project (type of project activity, total project area, type of plantation, rotation and ege of plantation, etc.)

D. Project location

II. Action plans

A. Project period
B. Description of project activity
C. Pattern of plantation
D. Pattern of plantation maintenance and productions

III. Plan of Investment

A. Estimation of project costs
B. Sources of project finances
C. Estimation of project income

IV. Estimation of environmental benefits

A. Estimation of total amount of carbon sequestration periodically from project start to the end of project activity
B. Baseline scenario
C. Environmental benefits at level global, national and local area
D. Method of forest biomass measurement

V. Estimation of socio-economic benefits

A. Labor involvement and participation at every step of the project activity
B. Incomes labor increment from the project activity
C. Impact of the project activity in domain economic at project area respective
D. Others impact
E. Link and match with the national policy of Republic of Indonesia
F. Direct and indirect of Stake holders participation, including total participants.




I. General Description of Project Activity

A. Project and sector background (describing project backgrounds and their relation with the policy of forestry sector I Indonesia)
B. Project objectives (describing project objectives from the benefits of Annex I Country /target of green house gases reduction and from the benefits of Indonesia/sustainable development)
C. Project location (describing project location including information of climate, hydrology, soils, ecosystem, endangered species of flora and fauna, status of land use, etc.)
D. Type of project (describing type of project proposal, i.e. agroforestry, industrial forest plantation, or other activities and explanation for definition of forests, afforestation, reforestation and proposed species of trees)
E. Project costs/project financing (describing analysis and estimation of finance, including explanation for public funds)
F. Project proponents (describing company name of Indonesian partners and company name of investor partners)
G. Host country approval (describing project approval and explanation for Kyoto Protocol ratification)
H. Project start (describing date of project start)

II. Project Baseline and Additionality

A. Project baseline (describing total amount of biomass stock exchange at carbon pools in project area respective)
B. Baseline methodology (describing selected methodology from the Executive Board of the CDM and technical implementation. Baseline establishment should be done transparent and conservative)
C. Project boundary (describing project boundary. A project can be done in some locations or in one massive area, small scale area or large scale area)
D. Leakage (describing some activities for minimizing leakage of carbon in project area)
E. GHG coverage (to show green house gases at the project area)
F. Additionality (describing some predictions/estimations of additionality from environmental aspect; impact positive for biodiversity conservation and also impact positive for handling efforts of land degradation at project area)
G. Start date and crediting period (describing selection of crediting period and handling approach in the use of ICERs or tCERs. Developer has two options: (1) project duration is maximum 20 years and can be expanded two times or (2) project duration is maximum 30 years without expanding period).

III. Project Monitoring

A. Monitoring plan (explanation for accuracy, comparability, completeness and validity of monitoring plan and all of relevant information regarding monitoring plan at project area)
B. Calculation of CERs (explanation for the use of formula for establishing baseline, leakage estimations, calculation of green house gases and all relevant information regarding CERs calculations)

IV. Environmental Impacts of the Project and Socio-economic Benefits

A. Local Environmental benefits (describing environmental benefits at project area respective. Explanation for technical measurement approach in project monitoring plan)
B. Socio-Economic benefits (describing socio-economic benefits at the project implementations)
C. Capacity building (describing development of human resources capacity and institutions)
D. Technology transfer (describing processing of technology transfer from Annex I Country to host country , Indonesia /if any)
E. Host country criteria (describing special host country/if any for approval project as the CDM activities)
F. Sustainable Development Criteria (describing sustainable development criteria that have defined by host country or have identified for project respective)
G. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) (describing the main results of the study of environmental impacts at the project area and their synchronization with the objectives of host country)

V. Stakeholder Comments (describing processes, summary regarding comments of stakeholder with their feedback and problem solving)

VI. Other Project Documents (explanation for completeness of other documents which have closed relation with project activities)

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Source :
The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia.

by : Dr. Gun Mardiatmoko (