Forest CDM in indonesia
 


CDM in
Indonesia


INDONESIA
RAIN
FOREST

Indonesia’s biodiversity richness is made possible by several factors: it is located between two continents (Asia and Australia) and two oceans (Pacific and Indian) and it has a unique geographical feature (State Ministry of Environment, 1997). Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,500 islands extending 5,000 km along the equator and spanning two major biogeographical realms (Indomalaya and Australasia) with the Wallace Line in between, as well as several distinct biogeographical provinces. As a result, Indonesia is not only a megabiodiversity country but also has a high level of endemism.

Many of Indonesia's forests include in Tropical Rain Forest is a complex community whose framework is provided by trees of many sizes.Forest canopy is used as a general one to describe the total plant community above the ground. Within the canopy the microclimate differs from that. outside; there is less light, humidity is higher, and temperature is lower. Many of the smaller trees grow in the shade of the larger ones in the microclimate that these produce. Upon the framework of the tree and within the microclimate of the canopy grow a range of other kinds of plants: climbers, epiphytes, strangling, plants parasites, and saprophytes. The trees and most of the other plants are rooted in the soil and draw nutrients and water from it. Their fallen leaves, twigs, branches, and other parts provide; food for a host of invertebrate animals, amongst which termites are often important, and for fungi and bacteria. Nutrients are returned to the soil via decay of fallen parts and by leaching from the leaves by rain-water. It is a feature of tropical rain forest that most of the total nutrient store is in the vegetation; relatively little is held in the soil.

Indonesia’s forests are an extraordinary natural phenomenon, of immense value and beauty. Over ten per cent of the planet’s diversity of plants and animals are found only in Indonesia, including orangutan, elephants, tigers, rhinoceros, a thousand species of birds, and thousands of plant species. The archipelago is also home to hundreds of indigenous groups who have lived from and managed Indonesia’s forests for thousands of years. The forests provide food, medicines, building materials and clothing fibers, not only for indigenous communities, but also for world markets. Indonesia also possesses more endangered species than any other country in the world largely because of deforestation.
 




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Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries
 
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The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia.

by : Dr. Gun Mardiatmoko (gum_mardi@yahoo.com) (HP:+6281904227676)

II. THE PILOT PROJECT OF CARBON TRADING IN INDONESIA

Indonesia has two pilot projects of carbon trading in Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) scheme at forest area of East Kalimantan and Aceh. The implementation of carbon trading has been done through joint operation with some international institutions, i.e. Meryl Lynch, Global Environmental Resources (GER), Eco Securities and Bird Life, etc.

Information regarding pilot project of carbon trading in Ulu Masen Project, Aceh in short, as follows:
Ulu Masen Project is certified by the Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance which involved Non Governmental Organization (NGO): the Nature Conservancy, the Rainforest Alliance and the big company Weyerhaeuser Co. the sponsor of Ulu Masen Project hopes that level of logging operation in project area must be cut until 85%.

With reducing forest extraction, project area can produce carbon credit 3.3 million ton per year. Thus, if price estimation of carbon is US $ 5 per ton the project can produce carbon credit US $ 16.5 million per years. The other benefits are:
(1) biodiversity benefit because the project area is habitat for elephant of Sumatera, tiger of Sumatera, orang utan and clouded leopard, etc.;
(2) Socio-economic benefits when the villages receive money as a compensation that local people have involvement and participation on forest conservations or they do not cut the trees in project area, etc.


In my opinion, the afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM is very flexible because it can be done at forest area, forest community area, state forest area and private land. Land use change that can be done in the afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM is conversion from agriculture, wetland, settlement area, ranch area or prairie to forest. Type of forestry activity for implementation of the afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM is agroforestry, sylvofishery, rubber estate, monoculture and mixed species plantation, multipurpose species plantation, etc. Unfortunately, as far as I know, the Forestry CDM in Indonesia is still in concept and macro policy and is not ready to implement afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM. So, it is time to make concrete action to implement the Forestry CDM and I hope there is NGO or international institution will take participation in this project in Indonesia.

Some constraints in the implementation of the Forestry CDM Indonesia is lack of financial resources and there is no experience to establish the Forestry CDM but Indonesia has experiences in industrial forest plantation project for pulp and papers in Sumatera and Kalimantan. In other words knowledge and skills of human resources in Indonesia is ready to implement of the Forestry-CDM, mainly if there is support from developed country (Annex I). Ideally, it is better if we can start to implement the pilot project of the Forestry CDM minimum 6 units (in West Indonesia 2 units, Central Indonesia 2 units and East Indonesia 2 units).

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Source :
The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia.

by : Dr. Gun Mardiatmoko (gum_mardi@yahoo.com).
FORESTRY DEPARTMENT, FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, PATTIMURA UNIVERSITY. 2009