Forest CDM in indonesia

Indonesia’s biodiversity richness is made possible by several factors: it is located between two continents (Asia and Australia) and two oceans (Pacific and Indian) and it has a unique geographical feature (State Ministry of Environment, 1997). Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,500 islands extending 5,000 km along the equator and spanning two major biogeographical realms (Indomalaya and Australasia) with the Wallace Line in between, as well as several distinct biogeographical provinces. As a result, Indonesia is not only a megabiodiversity country but also has a high level of endemism.

Many of Indonesia's forests include in Tropical Rain Forest is a complex community whose framework is provided by trees of many sizes.Forest canopy is used as a general one to describe the total plant community above the ground. Within the canopy the microclimate differs from that. outside; there is less light, humidity is higher, and temperature is lower. Many of the smaller trees grow in the shade of the larger ones in the microclimate that these produce. Upon the framework of the tree and within the microclimate of the canopy grow a range of other kinds of plants: climbers, epiphytes, strangling, plants parasites, and saprophytes. The trees and most of the other plants are rooted in the soil and draw nutrients and water from it. Their fallen leaves, twigs, branches, and other parts provide; food for a host of invertebrate animals, amongst which termites are often important, and for fungi and bacteria. Nutrients are returned to the soil via decay of fallen parts and by leaching from the leaves by rain-water. It is a feature of tropical rain forest that most of the total nutrient store is in the vegetation; relatively little is held in the soil.

Indonesia’s forests are an extraordinary natural phenomenon, of immense value and beauty. Over ten per cent of the planet’s diversity of plants and animals are found only in Indonesia, including orangutan, elephants, tigers, rhinoceros, a thousand species of birds, and thousands of plant species. The archipelago is also home to hundreds of indigenous groups who have lived from and managed Indonesia’s forests for thousands of years. The forests provide food, medicines, building materials and clothing fibers, not only for indigenous communities, but also for world markets. Indonesia also possesses more endangered species than any other country in the world largely because of deforestation.


global warming
Causes of climate change
Impact Global Warming
Limited Global Warming
Agreement on global warming
Analyzing global warming
Kyoto Protocol
Greenhouse effect
Scientific research
Why climates vary
Ocean problems
Southern Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Ozone hole
Environmental problems by petroleum
Changes in the atmosphere
Increasing Temperatures
Can Earth Explode ?
NASA Study
El Nino
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries


What industry needs for production
How industry varies around the world
How industries are classified
Industrial Organization
Industrial Revolution
Life during the Industrial Revolution
Spread of the Industrial Revolution
The steam engine

Environmental problems


Environmental Pollution
Types of pollution
Air pollution
Water pollution
Soil pollution
Controlling pollution
Government action
Scientific efforts
Business and industry
Environmental organizations
The growth of pollution
Progress in controlling pollution
Current environmental issues

space exploration

What is space?
Getting into space and back
Living in space
Meeting basic needs in space
Communicating with Earth
The dawn of the space age
Space probes
Probes to Venus
Probes to Jupiter and beyond
Probes to comets
Human beings enter space
Apollo: Mission to the moon
Exploring the moon
Returning to Earth
The International Space Station
Space shuttles
Types of shuttle missions
save forest mangrove
back to nature FOREST NEWS
Indonesia Forest Pictures Indonesia Forest


albert einstein

Albert Einstein




The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia.

by : Dr. Gun Mardiatmoko ( (HP:+6281904227676)


Indonesian forest with mega biodiversity, is very potential for the implementation of carbon trading schemes, i.e. the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme, Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) scheme and Voluntary scheme. The Forestry CDM is a partnership between developed country and developing country to reduce Green House Gases (GHG) emission through forestry activity: afforestation and reforestation. Principally, carbon trading will assist in reconstruction of forest ecology and forest protection in Indonesia.

The actor of the Forestry CDM is called developer of afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM. This developer is a union of two institutions between investor from developed country (Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change/UNFCC) and business sector by state or private company, cooperation or personal from developing country.

The Kyoto Protocol is a 1997 international treaty which came into force in 2005, which binds most developed nations to a cap and trade system for the six major green house gases. Emission quotas were agreed by each participating country, with the intention of reducing their overall emissions by 5.2% of their 1990 levels by the end of 2012. Under the treaty, for the 5-year compliance period from 2008 until 2012, nations that emit less than their quota will be able to sell emissions credits to nations that exceed their quota. It is also possible for developed countries within the trading scheme to sponsor carbon projects that provide a reduction in green house gas emissions in other countries, as a way of generating trade-able carbon credits. The Protocol allows this through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), in order to provide flexible mechanisms to aid regulated entities in meeting their compliance with their caps. The UNFCC validates all CDM projects to ensure they create genuine additional savings and that there is no carbon leakage.

Carbon Trading is a market based mechanism for helping mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Carbon trading markets are developed that bring buyers and sellers of carbon credits together with standardized rules of trade. Any entity, typically a business, that emits CO2 to the atmosphere may have an interest or may be required by law to balance their emissions through mechanism of Carbon sequestration. These businesses may include power generating facilities or many kinds of manufacturers. Entities that manage forest or agricultural land might sell carbon credits based on the accumulation of carbon in their forest trees or agricultural soils. Similarly, business entities that reduce their carbon emission may be able to sell their reductions to other emitters. The legal aspect of carbon trading is Certificate of Emission Reductions (CERs).

Developer of afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM can obtain CERs if they make: (1) Project proposal of afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM and (2) Project Design Document for project activities under the CDM. Developer requirement of afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM in Indonesia, in general as below:

  • Developer has license to use the product of forest wood at forest plantation/industrial forest plantation or to use environmental benefit from carbon trading.

  • Developer has a letter of land information/recommendation for the CDM from regency at project area respective.

  • Developer makes project proposal regarding the CDM and send proposal to the Ministry of Forestry of Republic of Indonesia.
<<< Prev   Next >>>

Source :
The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia.

by : Dr. Gun Mardiatmoko (


The Clean Development Mechanism global warming Reducing emissions (REDD)
heart attack influenza Cholesterol






What is Greenhouse Effect ?
Climate and atmosphere
Effect of land-use management on greenhouse gas emissions from tropical peatlands
Reducing Global Warming: The Potential of Organic Agriculture
Legislative council panel on environmental affairs
Climate Change and its implication in Central Asia - Its impact on agriculture and rural sector
Oxfam calls for action on climate change at Davos
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) in developing countries
REDD should be designed to include the full range of options defined in the Bali Action Plan
To be successful, the REDD+ regime should foster explicit linkages between nationally-owned forest governance processes and nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs)
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD) - the link with wetlands
Wetlands and the REDD negotiations
Reduction emission from deforestation and forest degradation and sustainable development in Indonesia
What is swine influenza?
Influenza Defined
Influenza Viruses - Types, Subtypes, and Strains
What is pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 virus?
Definitions for identification of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009
Case Management & Infection Control
Who should be tested?
Step-by-step guide for specimen collection, storage and transportation
Doctors/Nurses directions to Patients/Parents
How Influenza Viruses Change: Drift and Shift
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic
International Health Regulations
Vaccine Development and Use
Naming the Virus Strain
Information for Families and Visitors
New Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) 2009
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Guidance
Recent Results from Studies with the new 2009 A/H1N1 Influenza A Virus
Continued pandemic influenza virus detections across Europe with increased activity in the UK (Northern Ireland)
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 and Wild Birds
What is Heart Attack?
Heart Attack Treatment
Panic Attack or Heart Attack?
How will I Recover from My Heart Attack?
Medicines to prevent another heart attack
Heart Attack Rehabilitation
Predicting Recovery of Heart Muscle Strength after a Heart Attack
Women and Heart Attack
What happens when you have a heart attack?
Two treatment innovations improve heart function after heart attack
Rapid cooling technology could aid surgery patients, heart attack victims
What is Cholesterol ?
High Blood Cholesterol
What Affects Cholesterol Levels?
Treating High Cholesterol
Lowering Cholesterol With Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC)
What are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides?
Top Ten Tips for Cholesterol Testing
Managing Cholesterol with Exercise
Cholesterol Essential for Good Health
LDL Cholesterol - Low Density Lipoprotein



Definisi Hutan Pengertian Hutan Manfaat Hutan Kerusakan Hutan Hutan Indonesia Fungsi Hutan